Musical examples from LakhNES

Chris Donahue, Huanru Henry Mao, Yiting Ethan Li, Garrison W. Cottrell, Julian McAuley

This web repository contains musical examples from our paper LakhNES: Improving multi-instrumental music generation with cross-domain pre-training. LakhNES is a Transformer model which benefits from transfer learning: it is pre-trained on the Lakh MIDI dataset and fine-tuned on the NES-MDB 8-bit music dataset. Code can be found here.

Chiptunes generated by LakhNES

This section showcases unconditional examples from our LakhNES model, i.e., chiptunes generated from scratch.

Continuations of human-composed chiptunes

This section showcases examples of our model continuing human-composed material. We do this by feeding a snippet of a human-composed song that the model has never seen during training, and asking LakhNES to continue the piece.

Game Priming sequence LakhNES Continuation 1 LakhNES Continuation 2 Human Continuation
Bubble Bobble
Bubble Bobble
Operation Wolf
Vs. Duck Hunt
The Battle of Midway

Generating with human-specified rhythm

It would be useful if our generative model could assist in human-guided composition. Here, we condition LakhNES on the rhythm from a human-composed song and ask it to fill in the notes.

Game Rhythm specification LakhNES Notes 1 LakhNES Notes 2 Human notes
Digital Devil Story
Dragon Buster II
Terra Cresta

Non-cherry-picked examples from all models

In this section we show uncurated collections of 8 sound examples from each model included in our user study. This is intended to both contextualize the results of our user study and speak to the general capabilities of each model.

Method Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 Example 7 Example 8
Random (control)
Real data